POV-Ray : Newsgroups : povray.binaries.tutorials : TerraPOV - Sky system - Atmosphere - Part2, Global Geometry Server Time: 10 Dec 2018 07:28:57 GMT
  TerraPOV - Sky system - Atmosphere - Part2, Global Geometry (Message 1 to 1 of 1)  
From: Bruno Cabasson
Subject: TerraPOV - Sky system - Atmosphere - Part2, Global Geometry
Date: 5 May 2009 12:19:47
Message: <op.utghu3eam1sclq@pignouf>
This article explains TerraPOV's global geometric model for a scene. This  
involves Earth's and Sun's geometric parameters.

Just before we begin, we have to define some distance units we will often  
use in TerraPOV:

#declare m = 0.1; // A value of 1 makes the sun's distance ouside POV's  
numerical domain.
#declare km = 1000*m;
#declare mm = 0.001*m;

And, like POV-SDL, TerraPOV uses degrees for angles.

0) Outer space
--------------
Outer space is considered as fully dark. This is the case in POV-SDL if no  
background is specified.

1) Earth
---------
For current applications such as GPS, the reference Earth is an ellipsoid  
with semi-major axis of 6378.137 km and semi-minor axis of 6354.4523 km  
(WGS84 model). In many scientific applications and calculations, the Earth  
is simplified to a sphere with a radius of semi-major axis. TerraPOV  
expresses it as:

#declare TP_EARTH_RADIUS = 6378.137*km;

TerraPOV sets the origin at the surface of the Earth, that is:

#declare _tp_earth = sphere
{
     0, TP_EARTH_RADIUS
     pigment {White} // Could be any predefined texture, but normally, the  
terrain hides the sphere
     finish {ambient 0}
     translate -TP_EARTH_RADIUS*y
}

And that's enough for Earth.

2) Sun
------
The sun is the main light source for TerraPOV scenes. The sun's apparent  
aperture, due to real distance, allows to assume that the rays are  
parallel. At first, we use a simple parallel white light_source that  
looks_like a shere. The necessity to have a more advanced model for the  
sun depends on the type of sky used in the scene, whether clouds are  
present and if the sun is totally/partially hidden behind, its elevation.  
Until now I could not find a general model of the sun that can fit a few  
frequent situations. I'll come back to it later. The color of the  
light_source is expressed through 2 values: a color and a brightness,  
multiplied together. Later, the color could be normalized in order to  
match the energy of white (white carries an energy The brightness is used  
to compensate lightness diminution when the sun is hidden behind clouds or  
at low elevations.

For now, let's express what we have:

// User defined values
#declare TP_SUN_HEADING = 0;
#declare TP_SUN_ELEVATION = 15;
#declare TP_BRIGHTNESS = 1;
#declare TP_SUN_COLOR = White;
#declare TP_SUN_APPARENT_APERTURE = 0.5; // Commonly admitted value

// Computed values
#declare TP_SUN_DISTANCE = 10*TP_EARTH_RADIUS; // Far enough. Actual  
distance in the scene is not very critical, as the light ays are parallel
#declare TP_SUN_RADIUS =  
TP_SUN_DISTANCE*tan(radians(TP_SUN_APPARENT_APERTURE/2));

// Sun
#declare _tp_basic_sun = light_source
{
   <0, 0, 0>
   TP_SUN_COLOR*TP_BRIGHTNESS
   looks_like {sphere{0, TP_SUN_RADIUS pigment{Yellow} finish {diffuse 0  
ambient 1}}}
   translate TP_SUN_DISTANCE*z
   parallel point_at -z
   rotate -TP_SUN_ELEVATION*x
   rotate TP_SUN_HEADING*y
}

3) Camera
---------
We use a standard persepective camera, and the main parametes are  
contallable. In a normal lanscape scene, we can drop the camera above the  
terrain, helped by a preview image, and rough and fine offsets can be be  
applied. The camera can also be placed with respect to an object. For now,  
we just position the camera above the ground, at humain height. Let's also  
imagine that TerraPOV can provide several cameras, for different pusposes.  
So, let's define the default camera.

#declare TP_DEFCAM_HEIGHT = 2*m; // Let's be tall
#declare TP_DEFCAM_HEADING = 0;
#declare TP_DEFCAM_ELEVATION = 5;
#declare TP_DEFCAM_ANGLE = 40;

#declare _tp_default_camera = camera
{
     location 0
     angle TP_DEFCAM_ANGLE
     right     x*image_width/image_height
     look_at   z
     rotate -TP_DEFCAM_ELEVATION*x
     rotate TP_DEFCAM_HEADING*y
     translate TP_DEFCAM_HEIGHT*y; // Could use trace() to make sure we are  
above the surface. But no terrain yet ...
}

Now we have someting that expresses the global geometry of a TerraPOV  
scene. However it's still very basic, but we have already separated  
interesting parameters from the 'engine'.

// Scene
object {_tp_earth}
object {_tp_basic_sun}
camera {_tp_default_camera}


We put all together and render the scene. One can play with parameters.
REMARK: In a while, we will have many parameters. They will be split among  
several include files, and used by a standard main scene file.

// ------------------------------------
#include "colors.inc"

global_settings
{
     #if (version < 3.7) assumed_gamma 1 #end
     max_trace_level 20
}

// Units
#declare m = 0.1; // A value of 1 makes the sun's distance ouside POV's  
numerical domain.
#declare km = 1000*m;
#declare mm = 0.001*m;

// Earth parameters
#declare TP_EARTH_RADIUS = 6378.137*km;

// Sun parameters
#declare TP_SUN_HEADING = 0;
#declare TP_SUN_ELEVATION = 15;
#declare TP_BRIGHTNESS = 1;
#declare TP_SUN_COLOR = White;
#declare TP_SUN_APPARENT_APERTURE = 0.5; // Commonly admitted value

// Default camera parameters
#declare TP_DEFCAM_HEIGHT = 2*m; // Let's be tall
#declare TP_DEFCAM_HEADING = 0;
#declare TP_DEFCAM_ELEVATION = 5; // Let's look up a little
#declare TP_DEFCAM_ANGLE = 40;

// Computed values
#declare TP_SUN_DISTANCE = 10*TP_EARTH_RADIUS; // Far enough. Actual  
distance in the scene is not very critical, as the light ays are parallel
#declare TP_SUN_RADIUS =  
TP_SUN_DISTANCE*tan(radians(TP_SUN_APPARENT_APERTURE/2));

// Earth
#declare _tp_earth = sphere
{
     0, TP_EARTH_RADIUS
     pigment {White} // Could be any predefined texture, but normally, the  
terrain hides the sphere
     finish {ambient 0}
     translate -TP_EARTH_RADIUS*y
}

// Sun
#declare _tp_basic_sun = light_source
{
   <0, 0, 0>
   color rgb TP_SUN_COLOR*TP_BRIGHTNESS
   looks_like {sphere{0, TP_SUN_RADIUS pigment{Yellow} finish {diffuse 0  
ambient 1}}}
   translate TP_SUN_DISTANCE*z
   parallel point_at -z
   rotate -TP_SUN_ELEVATION*x
   rotate TP_SUN_HEADING*y
}

// Default camera
#declare _tp_default_camera = camera
{
     location 0
     angle TP_DEFCAM_ANGLE
     right     x*image_width/image_height
     look_at   z
     rotate -TP_DEFCAM_ELEVATION*x
     rotate TP_DEFCAM_HEADING*y
     translate TP_DEFCAM_HEIGHT*y // Could use trace() to make sure we are  
above the surface. But no terrain yet ...
}

// Scene
object {_tp_earth}
object {_tp_basic_sun}
camera {_tp_default_camera}

// ------------------------------------

Ok folks, I have finished for this part. Next article will add an  
atmosphere, and we'll get a blue sky ... automatically....

Coming next: TerraPOV - Sky system - Atmosphere - Part3, A Blue Sky


Bruno

-- 
Utilisant le client e-mail révolutionnaire d'Opera :  
http://www.opera.com/mail/


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